However, there is not enough empirical evidence that supports the use of theatrical techniques in the English classroom, particularly in Southern Chile, with students who come from rural schools and who have shown low achievement rates. Why, however, should men or women who have already written stories long or short declared by competent people to be “dramatic,” make any special study of the technique of plays? Indranil Sarkar Assam, India 2. The other imitated the motions of a bird seeking to escape the hunter. 4 0 obj The differences brought about by the greater speed, greater compactness, and greater vividness of the drama, with its impersonality, its codperative nature, its appeal to the group rather than to the individual, create the fundamental technique which distinguishes the drama from the novel. Writers for radio next learned how to suggest place and time by word of mouth, accompanied by the impressionistic use of sound and music. Each dramatist worked sincerely, believing the technique that he used would give him best, with the public he had in mind, his desired effects. Dramatic technique is the means of expressing, for the stage, one’s ideas and emo- tions. This book, then, is meant, not to replace wise classroom instruc- tion, but to supplement it or to offer what it can when such instruction is impossible. That is, a story dramatized before when re-presented to the stage must share with the drama of the past certain characteristics if it is to be a play at all, but to some extent it must be presented differently. MaxineG A SCENARIO Ps athe lal Ae) Mie d aeeaeD . Twofold: first, as promptly as possible to win the attention of the audience; secondly, to hold that interest steady or, better, to increase it till the final curtain falls. This, the third sort of technique, is to be seen spe- cially in the work of the great dramatists. This difference applies in our attitude toward moral questions as treated in books or on the stage. The limitations of any such at- tempt I fully recognize. Iv PREFACE He is to keep submitting his plays till, by this somewhat indefinite method of training,he at last acquires the ability to write so well that a manuscript is accepted. Dramatic techniques include literary devices and staging elements determined by the playwright, director or stage manager. For many years now, the cry of the drama- tist has been, not “Let us adapt life to the stage,” but rather: “Let us adapt the stage, at any cost for it, at any cost of im- aginative effort or mechanical labor, to adequate and truth- ful representation of life.” The art of the playwright may be the art of fantasy or of realism, but for him who under- stands it rightly, not mistaking it for another art, and labor- ing till he grasps and understands its seeming mysteries, it can never be an art of falsification. We read to the end, though horrified, the Red Laugh of Andreiev. 809 . ‘ 6 DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE vised form and order as shall, within the limits of an ordi- nary theatrical representation, give rise to the greatest pos- sible amount of that peculiar kind of emotional effect, the production of which is the one great function of the theatre.”! It is just because the enthusiast copies, not simply what is of universal significance in the practice of some past period, but with equal closeness what is special to the time and indi- vidual to the dramatist, that his play fails. It is the poorer dramatists — Dryden, Jonson, Chapman — who, using their characters as mouthpieces, reveal their own personalities. Often, in whole-hearted admiration, he gives him- self to close imitation of Shakespeare, one of the great Greek dramatists, Ibsen, Shaw, or Brieux. Many or most of these the other dramatists of his day discover with him. P. Baker “I. Includes bibliographical reference and indexes Télécharger gratuit Dramatic technique pdf. An act can be sub-divided into scenes. Act One of the main divisions of the play. The motivation that was easy for the novelist as he explained how profoundly Blanche was moved by winning words or persuasive action of Denis, becomes almost impossible unless the words and action when seen and heard are for us equally winning and persuasive. The chief gift of the drama of the past to the young play- wright, then, is illustration of what is essential in drama. In each, something is said or done which moves the reader or hearer as the author wishes. The technique of any dramatist may be defined, roughly, as his ways, methods, and devices for getting his desired ends. The . This book will help the development from blind groping to the acquirement of a technique based on the practice of others. First there are certain essentials which all good plays, from Aschylus to Lord Dunsany, share at least in part. Literary techniques are used in literature for a variety of purposes. ASIDE, MONOLOGUE AND SOLILOQUY Aside: The term aside means ‘A remark made in an undertone so as to be inaudible to others nearby’.‘ An aside is a traditional dramatic device. It is the attempt to reproduce exactly on the stage the most popular parts of successful novels which has made many an adaptation a failure sur- prising to author and adapter. The stage appeals to both eye and ear. Evidently, too, they must know something about structure. Lessing. Such full discussion is impossible in a book the size of this one. When all is said and done, this time difficulty caused by the greater vividness of stage presentation remains the chief obstacle in the way of the dramatist who would write of TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA ml a sequence of historical events or of evolution or devolution in character. Surely writing stage directions will differ from the narration and description of a novel. Even her suggestion to save her living lover by means of her dead husband we think we can forgive her be- cause of its ingenuity and presence of mind; or rather its very ingenuity leads us to imagine that this suggestion may have been appended by the malicious narrator who desired to end his tale with some right poisonous sting. Why? In order to accurately portray different characters and emotions, you need to expand your vocal toolbox and learn about the ways that range, pitch, and pronunciation affect your performance. Too many people do not recognize that dramatic technique — methods and devices for gaining in the theatre a drama- tist’s desired ends— is historically of three kinds: universal, special, and individual. 18 DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE Obviously in this little play the directions for imitative movement fill three quarters of the space; dialogue fills one quarter; characterization, except as the accompanying music may very faintly have suggested it, there is none. Secondly, there is the special technique of a period, such as the Elizabethan, the Restoration, the period of Scribe and his influence, etc. Obviously, then, from many different points of view, the great art of the novelist and the equally great art of the dramatist are not the same. While it is true that selection and compression underlie all dramatic art, as they underlie all of the pictorial arts, it is no longer true, as it was in the mid-nineteenth century, that drama- tists believe that we should shape life to fit hampering con- ditions of the stage, accepted as inevitably rigid. The Ballad Dance consisted “in the combination of speech, music, and that imitative gesture which, for lack of a better word, we are obliged to call dancing. Can you not see that the work of falsification, which a play demands is, of all tasks, the most ungrateful? This is not the place to discuss in detail the relation of a dramatist to his audience, but it is undeniable that the psychology of the crowd in a theatre is not exactly the same thing as the sum total of the emotional responses of each individual in it to some given dramatic incident. x��][s�6�~���x��l��ޔ�b{fvSIU��}ȜY�-��HE������ xAR$�JfF�@t�nth4�ͯ�n~y��#1o~^%�d%�& �ww����? One young author went so far as to make the first lover of Blanche flirt so desperately with a maid-servant off stage that the report of his conduct by a jealous man-servant was the last straw to bring about the change in Blanche’s feelings. Which is the chief essential in good drama? The public of Shakespeare would not have cared for Dryden’s treatment: the Restoration found Shakespeare barbaric until reshaped by dramatists whose touch today often seems that of a vandal facing work the real beauty of which he does not understand. A dramatic device is a convention used in drama as a substitution for reality that the audience accepts as real although they know them to be false. Today we regard the stage, as we should, as plastic. PDF | This paper is an attempt at providing a template for budding playwrights. Chiswick Press, London. The reputation of the novelist rests very largely on the verdict of his individual readers. This he safely copies. 829-330. He reads and sees past and present plays, probably in large numbers. Thus was born the genre of radio drama.The radio dramatist must address himself to the imagination of listeners who are unable to see what they are experiencing. CHARACTERIZATION . The Riverside Breve CAMBRIDGE. From that he should move to a technique that is his own, a mingling of much out of the past and an adaptation of past practice to his own needs. Dramatic Irony – It is dramatically ironical that Soko and the king think that Wara is a virgin while she is not. There will be very little to alter and only a certain amount of touches to add.” If, in accordance with this suggestion, an adapter would plan out in scenario the mere story of the novel he wishes to adapt for the stage, would then transfer to his scenario only so much of the novel as perfectly fits the needs of the stage; and finally with the aid of the original author, would rewrite the portions which can be used only in part, and with him compose certain parts entirely anew, we should have a much larger proportion of permanently successful adaptations. He, too, has his Love’s Labor’s Lost, or Feast at Solhaug. The fact that the drama had had for centuries in England and elsewhere a fecund his- tory before the novel as a form took shape at all would in- timate that the drama is a different and independent art from that of the novel or the short story. Shakespeare's key dramatic techniques in Macbeth include: The Supernatural. These unlike conditions are bound to create differences in the pre- sentation of the same material. Therefore, the words or actions of a character carry a special meaning for the reader, but are understood differently by the character. man : Ps yaa DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE BY GEORGE PIERCE BAKER PROFESSOR OF DRAMATIC LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY “eA good play is certainly the most rational and the highest Entertainment that Human Invention can produce.” COLLEY CIBBER HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY BOSTON NEWYORK CHICAGO Che Hivergide Press Cambridge COPYRIGHT, I919, BY GEORGE PIERCE BAKER ALL RIGHTS RESERVED The author acknowledges courteous permission to quote passages from copyright plays as credited to various authors and publishers in the footnotes. %���� Indeed, both in and out of the classroom they have been slowly revised in the intervening five years. The man who grows from a technique which per- mits him to write a good play because it accords with his- torical practice to the technique which makes possible for him a play which no one else could have written, must work under three great Masters: Constant Practice, Ex- acting Scrutiny of the Work, and, above all, Time. Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance. When you are writing about your work you need to be able to refer to these techniques in order to explain 509 Barereenar ath tread oes A (a ee ule rth nite RRS DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE CHAPTER I TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA: WHAT IT IS. This de- mands very skilful selection among his materials to gain his desired effects in the quickest possible ways. A blackout at the end of a scene is a technique used to heighten a drama. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Imagine the horror and outcry if we were to put upon the stage a dramatized news- paper or popular magazine. In a story or novel, mere clearness would demand more because the author could not be sure that the reader would hit the right intonation or feel the gesture which must accompany the words. Almost all the plays, furthermore, are extremely artificial and utterly devoid of the quality known as human interest.” All this testimony of managers and play-readers shows that there is something which the dramatist has not as a birthright, but must learn. It has been recounted a thousand times after Petronius, and since it pleased even in the worst copy, it was thought that the subject must be an equally happy one for the stage. The contents of this book were originally brought together from notes for the classroom as eight lectures delivered be- fore the Lowell Institute, Boston, in the winter of 1913. An act can be sub-divided into scenes. Just here. Therefore I must seem to favor an instruction far more dogmatic than my pupils know from me. 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